新加坡资深外交家马凯硕:西方的战略思维有个致命缺陷

马凯硕在哈佛大学演讲时对美国提出这样的警告:

“这是一个时代的终结。所有人都准备好了,迎接美国不做老大那天的到来。”

因为这个演讲,马凯硕被称为史上最强悍的亚洲崛起代言人。

他不惮于写作《反对西方》,因为他知道,没有争论,没有论战,人们就无法从西方中心的语境中释放出来,亚洲崛起带来的东西方关系的调整也就无从厘清

他的著作有着鲜明的亚洲色彩。

有关亚洲兴衰的书,凡是有些影响的,多为西方人撰写。亚洲人的声音很弱。结果,《亚洲人会思考吗?》英文版在1998年一现身,就得到基辛格、亨廷顿等人的重视和推荐,马凯硕本人被称为“亚洲的汤因比”。其实,马凯硕仅仅论证了一个很简单的事情:过去500年,亚洲衰落了,今后500年,亚洲人将作出与西方人一样的贡献。

2002年5月31日,是马凯硕作为新加坡驻联合国大使担任安理会主席的最后一天,而他放弃了离别招待会,飞回新加坡,在病床前陪父亲走过最后的时光。父亲的逝世刺激马凯硕“把想要写的东西尽快写下来”,于是就有了第二本书《走出纯真年代——重建美国与世界的信任》。

 

这本书显示出了对亚洲崛起的乐观,以及它对西方人优越心理的刺激,也许是英文著作里最强烈的。

“西方的战略思维有个致命缺陷,”马凯硕一针见血,“他们自认为是问题的解决者,殊不知自己也是问题的制造者。”

解读中国工作室推出的系列短片《见证中国变革时代》,今天推出第11集《世界向中国学习什么?》。请点击→ 马凯硕:世界向中国学习什么?

马凯硕1948年出生在新加坡印度后裔的贫穷家庭。

在政府的财政援助和奖学金资助下,马凯硕一步步摆脱了贫穷。18岁时,他当上了每月能拿到150新币的纺织品推销员。与此同时,政府给了他最高荣誉的总统奖学金,支持其读世界最好的大学。

作为在学界和政界颇有影响力的资深外交官,马凯硕毫不吝惜对中国改革开放所取得成就的赞美。在南海问题、亚投行等多个话题上,马凯硕的“中国姿态”十分鲜明。

“是时候了,美国要认真计划好如何取代中国的老二位置。”

他认为,如果中国做“老大”,和美国的方式会截然不同。他表示,在中国的历史长河里,没有殖民海外的记录。郑和带去的是欢声笑语而不是殖民剥削。

对于美国媒体,他也直言需要“改革开放”。他表示自己去过许多国家,但到了美国,打开电视,仿佛与世隔绝,美国媒体自说自话令人不寒而栗。西方200年的兴起并非人类历史主线,美国媒体需要打开心扉努力认识外部世界。他还强调,美国知识分子眼界落后于塞尔维亚、土耳其、希腊的知识分子,如何提升美国的世界观是个大难题。

在节目中,马凯硕对中国改革开放四十年这样评价:

毫无疑问,中国经济和社会发展的记录,可能是有史以来,所有国家中最为成功的。在我看来,没有哪一个国家能够像中国一样,这么成功地提高人民的生活水平,没有哪一个国家能够像中国,在过去四十年中那样,迅速而有效地消除贫困。这是一个很了不起的故事。

I think there is no doubt that the record of China’s economic and social development is probably the most successful record of any country since the beginning of time. I think no country has succeeded in improving the extend of living standard of its people, no country has succeeded in removing poverty as quickly and as effectively as China has done so over the past forty years. It’s a kind of remarkable story.

他还认为,中国的发展红利促使中国以及周边国家受益,中国为其他国家讲述了一个卓越的成功故事。

中国的成功在很多方面对世界都非常重要。

The success story of China has been very important for the world in many ways.

首先,中国的人口约占全世界的五分之一,全世界70亿人中有14亿人在中国,14亿人是全人类的很大一部分。中国做得很好。

Firstly, China provides almost one-fifth of the world’s population, 1.4 billion people out of over 7 billion people, so 1.4 billion people as a large part of humanity. China is doing very well.

其次,中国的成功对其他国家也是有利的,因为中国的发展具有溢出效应。中国的发展也使得其他国家从中获益,比如说东盟就很明显,从中国的发展中获益颇多。但同样重要的是,中国的成功启发了其他的国家,并让他们觉得,如果中国能够根除贫困,为什么我们不能同样做到呢?事实上,非洲和亚洲有很多国家来中国取经,这是一件非常好的事情,因为这对世界来说是一件好事,有一个卓越的成功故事来鼓励世界其他的国家。

Secondly, I think China’s success has also been good for the rest of the world because of the spill-over effects of China’s development. China’s growth has also led to other countries’ benefiting from China’s growth, ASEAN, for example, has benefited significantly from China’s growth, but equally importantly, China’s success inspired other countries and made them feel that if China can eradicate so much poverty, why can’t we do the same? And the fact that many countries say from African and Asian coming to learn from China, that is a very good thing because it is good for the world to have a spectacular success story to inspire the rest of the world.

《大融合:东方、西方,与世界的逻辑》

我几年前写了一本书叫《大融合》,我在书里讲到,世界正在趋同,变得越来越小。我用一个非常简单但又大胆的比喻来解释世界的变化。过去的70亿人生活在197个独立的国家,就像是生活在197条独立的船上,船长和船员照料船只,制定规则,避免船只沉没,这便是我们的世界。

I wrote a book some years ago called The Great Convergence, and I said the world actually has been converging and becoming smaller and smaller. I used a very simple bold metaphor that explains how the world has changed. I say in the past, when 7 billion people lived in 197 separate countries, even as though they are living in 197 separate boats with captains and crews taking care of each boat and rules to make sure that the boat didn’t collapse, that is our world.

随着全球化的大趋同,世界变得越来越小,变得更加相互依赖。这70亿人不再生活在197条独立的船上,而是住在同一条船上的197个船舱里。于是,问题就出现在世界这艘大船上。正如你所知道的,全球变暖、全球金融危机、全球性恐怖主义、世界性流行疾病。

As a result of the great convergence of globalization of the world shrinking and becoming more interdependent, the 7 billion people of the world are longer live in 197 separate boats, the 7 billion people of the world live in 197 separate cabins on the same boat. So, the problem of our global boat is that we have captains and crews taking care of each cabin and no captain or crew taking care of the global boat as a whole, and that’s why we’re having problems, likes you know, of global warming, global financial crisis, global terrorism, global pandemics.

借由人类命运共同体,习主席是在提醒我们,70亿人现在的处境是相同的,我们不应该只是关心自己的船舱,我们应该关心整个船只,因为如果船沉了,我们有共同的未来,我们都会丧命。这就是为什么我非常喜欢人类命运共同体这个理念。

By talking about the Community of Shared Future for Mankind, President Xi is reminding us that all 7 billion of us are now on a same boat, so we shouldn’t just be taking care of our cabin, we should be taking care of the boat as a whole, so because if the boat sinks, we have a shared future, we all sink. That’s why I like very much this phrase of ‘Community of Shared Future for Mankind’.

我很高兴习主席宣布,尽管中国仍然是一个发展中国家,但仍是在走出去,并试图启动和其他国家共同发展的倡议。

I’m very glad that President Xi has declared that even while China is still a developing country, it is actually going out and trying to launch the initiatives to have other countries grow development.

马凯硕非常认同“一带一路”倡议,他认为这个倡议把人民团结起来,共同驶向前方,世界会欢迎中国为此而做的努力。

我非常认同“一带一路”倡议。因为世界正在变得越来越小,越来越相互依存。正因为如此,我们应该寻找同彼此合作的更多方法和途径。我认为“一带一路”倡议显然就是在这样做,旨在把人们团结在一起。

Actually, I’m a strong believer in the Belt and Road Initiative because we are becoming a smaller and smaller interdependent world, and as a result of that, we have to find ways and means of working with each other more and more. I think that the Belt and Road Initiative is clearly doing that, clearly designed to bring people together.

我认为中国要表现得和美国不一样,这很重要,美国现在变得越来越单边主义。中国可以告诉全世界,随着美国变得愈发的单边主义,中国将变得更加多边主义,世界会欢迎中国为此而做的努力。

I think it’s very important for China to show that unlike the United States, which is behaving unfortunately now more and more unilaterally. You can actually tell the world that as the United States becomes progressively more and more unilateral, China will become progressively more and more multilateral, and the world will welcome what China works for that.